Date of Award

Fall 12-20-2021

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Industrial/Organizational Psychology (PhD)


Industrial/Organizational Psychology

First Advisor/Committee Member

Joey A. Collins, Psy.D.

Second Advisor/Committee Member

Lynette H. Bikos, Ph.D., ABPP

Third Advisor/Committee Member

Helen H. Chung, Ph.D.


workplace coaching, coaching effectiveness, perceptions of supervisor support, occupational self-efficacy, work engagement, multilevel analysis


Objective: Managerial coaching is a nascent area of research; as such there are few models supported by independent inquiry endorsing their effectiveness in impacting employee outcomes. The purpose of the current investigation was to present a concise, practical model of managerial coaching (RAD: relationships, accountability, development) that can be used for teaching and evaluating coaching behaviors. The model was hypothesized to predict ratings of coaching effectiveness (CE), perceptions of supervisor support (PSS), occupational self-efficacy (OSE), and work engagement (WE). Further, each factor of the model was tested in a series of secondary hypotheses to determine which factors were the most influential in predicting each outcome.

Method: Participants consisted of 1477 employees who reported to 439 managers enrolled in managerial coaching workshops belonging to a variety of organizations from over 30 countries. Each employee rated managers on their coaching behaviors, CE, and PSS. They also provided self-ratings about their OSE and WE. This cross-sectional data was used in a series of multi-model regressions using a compositional approach to centering, which allows analysis of individual (L1) and group effects (L2) in addition to cross-level interactions.

Results: The RAD model predicted CE (βL1 = 0.66; βL2 = 0.83), PSS (βL1 = 0.42; βL2 = 0.43; βinteraction = -0.17), OSE (βL1 = 0.18; βL2 = 0.15), and WE (βL1 = 0.45; βL2 = 0.39) with all significance levels at p < .001. The L1 effects support the use of coaching with each direct report; the L2 effects suggest that outcomes show additional improvements when managers coach all their employees rather than just some. The cross-level interaction for PSS indicates that when managers coach all their employees, it can act as a buffer effect for employee perceptions even when managers do not do supportive behaviors for an individual employee. Secondary hypotheses revealed that each factor had differing individual- and group-level effects, suggesting that each factor could be used strategically to intentionally improve the different outcomes.

Conclusions: This study adds to the mounting evidence for the potential effectiveness of managerial coaching across a variety of outcomes. The examination of each factor as a separate predictor provided insights about how managers might leverage strategic coaching, indicating that further research on multi-factored models may consider a similar nested design and statistical approach. Ultimately, the RAD model shows great promise for organizations interested in developing leaders and improving outcomes for employees.

Copyright Status

Additional Rights Information

Copyright held by author.


Copyright Status