Date of Award

Spring 5-13-2021

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)



First Advisor/Committee Member

Dr. David Wicks

Second Advisor/Committee Member

Dr. Munyi Shea

Third Advisor/Committee Member

Dr. Michael Paulus


Community of Inquiry (CoI), COVID-19 pandemic, emergency remote online teaching and learning, instructor self-efficacy, satisfaction, perception of learning


The pivot to emergency remote learning in response to the COVID-19 pandemic presented challenges for both students and instructors in the majority of higher education settings. Using the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework and self-efficacy theory, this study examined the teaching practices of higher education instructors during emergency remote online learning in response to the COVID-19 pandemic during Spring 2020. Regarding the three CoI presences, both students and instructors reported high teaching presence and high cognitive presence, as well as moderate social presence during emergency remote online learning. Correlations were found between student CoI scores and student satisfaction and perception of learning, as well as between instructor CoI cognitive presence score and online teaching self-efficacy. Student and instructor results did differ significantly, with student scores being higher than instructor scores for overall CoI and for all three presences (p < .01). Interviews with 20 instructors provided further insight into their emergency remote online teaching practices. The results of this study support the use of the CoI framework for evaluating emergency remote learning, reveal several implications for future practice, and suggest future research is needed on how to operationalize indicators for social presence in an emergency remote online learning environment.