Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Industrial/Organizational Psychology (PhD)


Industrial/Organizational Psychology

First Advisor/Committee Member

Joey Collins

Second Advisor/Committee Member

Lynette Bikos

Third Advisor/Committee Member

Matthew Bellinger


LGBTQ, campus climate, higher education, college satisfaction, sexual minority, NARAU


Objective: The purpose of this is research is to further LGBTQ-related research in the education space by examining the LGBTQ college campus climate of Seattle Pacific University (SPU), a non-affirming religiously affiliated university and Denominational Institution of the Free Methodist Church. SPU has recently come into the national spotlight for its non-affirming stance on LGBTQ issues, specifically its controversial hiring policy banning employees from having sexual intercourse with the same gender. This study hypothesizes that perceptions of the LGBTQ climate at SPU will be related to campus satisfaction for students who identify as sexual minorities as well as sexual majorities.

Method: This research included responses from a participant sample of 439 undergraduate students. Each student rated their overall satisfaction with the college along with their perceptions of the campus LGBTQ climate. Additionally, each student was asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity to determine if they identified as either a sexual majority or sexual minority. To address the study’s research objective, a multiple moderated regression analysis of sexual/gender identity on the relationship between perceptions of LGBTQ campus climate and college satisfaction was used, with years spent at SPU as a covariate.

Results: Perceptions of LGBTQ college campus climate predicted college satisfaction for both sexual minority (B1 = -.47, p < .001) and majority students (B0 = -.15, p < .001). While the relationship was significant for both groups, it was notably stronger for minority students. Additionally, the results of follow-up t-tests pointed out that sexual majority students reported higher ratings of college satisfaction and more positive perceptions of the LGBTQ campus climate as compared to minority students.

Conclusions: These findings highlight some of the differences between majority and minority students while also supporting the hypothesized model by suggesting a common theme among sexual majority and minority students such that LGBTQ climate is related to college satisfaction for both sample populations.