Date of Award

Spring 6-2019

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)



First Advisor/Committee Member

Arthur Ellis

Second Advisor/Committee Member

David Denton

Third Advisor/Committee Member

John Bond


meta-analysis, reflection, achievement, metacognition, effect size


Recent empirical research studies indicate that reflective self-assessment as a classroom approach can have a positive impact on student achievement. Reflective self-assessment, a form of metacognition, allows a student to think about past, current, and future learning performance. Although several discrete empirical studies have supported such hypotheses, a quantified exploration and summary of the relationship between classroom techniques of reflective self-assessment and student academic achievement is needed. The results of the current study, a meta-analysis of surveyed empirical studies from the past 26 years, indicate that reflective self-assessment has an overall effect size of .46 on academic achievement across grade levels and subjects. This effect size is considered moderate. Overall, such findings indicate that an increased use of reflective self-assessment in classrooms may provide students a chance to improve academic achievement.