Date of Award

Fall 2-4-2016

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Counselor Education (PhD)



First Advisor/Committee Member

Rick Eigenbrood

Second Advisor/Committee Member

Chris Sink

Third Advisor/Committee Member

Nyaradzo Mvududu


This study addresses the role of spirituality in student happiness among intermediate elementary students. Surveys addressing temperament, spirituality, and happiness were administered to a sample of South African students. There is a debate in the developmental literature on whether the effects of spirituality on happiness can be reduced to temperament in elementary school students. This study helps to establish the psychometric properties of several instruments and looks for a unique contribution of spirituality to happiness. The results indicate that most of the instruments used show good psychometric qualities and that spirituality possesses a statistically significant impact on happiness independent of temperament.

Copyright Status

Additional Rights Information

Copyright held by author.


Copyright Status